All systems
Debian Debian
apt-get install yum-utils
apt-get install yum-utils
image/svg+xml Kali Linux
apt-get install yum-utils
yum install yum-utils
dnf install yum-utils
Windows (WSL2)
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install yum-utils
apt-get install yum-utils


The basic directory layout for a Linux system


package manager for RPM

The RPM Package Manager (RPM) is a command-line driven package management system capable of installing, uninstalling, verifying, querying, and updating computer software packages. On Debian and derived systems it is recommended to use "alien" to convert RPM packages into .deb format instead of bypassing the Debian package management system by installing them directly with rpm.


GNU awk, a pattern scanning and processing language

`awk', a program that you can use to select particular records in a file and perform operations upon them. Gawk is the GNU Project's implementation of the AWK programming language. It conforms to the definition of the language in the POSIX 1003.2 Command Language And Utilities Standard. This version in turn is based on the description in The AWK Programming Language, by Aho, Kernighan, and Weinberger, with the additional features defined in the System V Release 4 version of UNIX awk. Gawk also provides more recent Bell Labs awk extensions, and some GNU-specific extensions.


GNU core utilities

This package contains the basic file, shell and text manipulation utilities which are expected to exist on every operating system. Specifically, this package includes: arch base64 basename cat chcon chgrp chmod chown chroot cksum comm cp csplit cut date dd df dir dircolors dirname du echo env expand expr factor false flock fmt fold groups head hostid id install join link ln logname ls md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mktemp mv nice nl nohup nproc numfmt od paste pathchk pinky pr printenv printf ptx pwd readlink realpath rm rmdir runcon sha*sum seq shred sleep sort split stat stty sum sync tac tail tee test timeout touch tr true truncate tsort tty uname unexpand uniq unlink users vdir wc who whoami yes


GNU compression utilities

This package provides the standard GNU file compression utilities, which are also the default compression tools for Debian. They typically operate on files with names ending in '.gz', but can also decompress files ending in '.Z' created with 'compress'.


GNU Bourne Again SHell

Bash is an sh-compatible command language interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input or from a file. Bash also incorporates useful features from the Korn and C shells (ksh and csh). Bash is ultimately intended to be a conformant implementation of the IEEE POSIX Shell and Tools specification (IEEE Working Group 1003.2). The Programmable Completion Code, by Ian Macdonald, is now found in the bash-completion package.


A powerful light-weight programming language designed for extending applications.


Common binaries and locale data for glibc


Standalone GNU Info documentation browser

The Info file format is an easily-parsable representation for online documents. This program allows you to view Info documents, like the ones stored in /usr/share/info. Much of the software in Debian comes with its online documentation in the form of Info files, so it is most likely you will want to install it.


Common CA certificates

This package includes PEM files of CA certificates to allow SSL-based applications to check for the authenticity of SSL connections. It includes, among others, certificate authorities used by the Debian infrastructure and those shipped with Mozilla's browsers. Please note that Debian can neither confirm nor deny whether the certificate authorities whose certificates are included in this package have in any way been audited for trustworthiness or RFC 3647 compliance. Full responsibility to assess them belongs to the local system administrator.


System NSS Initialization


command line interface for SQLite 2

SQLite is a C library that implements an SQL database engine. Programs that link with the SQLite library can have SQL database access without running a separate RDBMS process. NOTE: This package is SQLite version 2. Most programs that use SQLite use SQLite version 3. See the "sqlite3" package for that.


command line tool for transferring data with URL syntax

curl is a command line tool for transferring data with URL syntax, supporting DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP. curl supports SSL certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading, HTTP form based upload, proxies, cookies, user+password authentication (Basic, Digest, NTLM, Negotiate, kerberos...), file transfer resume, proxy tunneling and a busload of other useful tricks.


GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement (dummy transitional package)

GnuPG is GNU's tool for secure communication and data storage. It can be used to encrypt data and to create digital signatures. It includes an advanced key management facility and is compliant with the proposed OpenPGP Internet standard as described in RFC4880. This is a dummy transitional package that provides symlinks from gpg2 to gpg.


File comparison utilities

The diffutils package provides the diff, diff3, sdiff, and cmp programs. `diff' shows differences between two files, or each corresponding file in two directories. `cmp' shows the offsets and line numbers where two files differ. `cmp' can also show all the characters that differ between the two files, side by side. `diff3' shows differences among three files. `sdiff' merges two files interactively. The set of differences produced by `diff' can be used to distribute updates to text files (such as program source code) to other people. This method is especially useful when the differences are small compared to the complete files. Given `diff' output, the `patch' program can update, or "patch", a copy of the file.


interactive high-level object-oriented language (default version)

Python, the high-level, interactive object oriented language, includes an extensive class library with lots of goodies for network programming, system administration, sounds and graphics. This package is a dependency package, which depends on Debian's default Python version (currently v2.7).


A high-level cross-protocol url-grabber

urlgrabber dramatically simplifies the fetching of files. It is designed to be used in programs that need common (but not necessarily simple) url-fetching features. This package provides both a binary and a module, both of the name urlgrabber. It supports identical behavior for http://, ftp:// and file:/// URIs. It provides HTTP keepalive, byte ranges, regets, progress meters, throttling, retries, access to authenticated http/ftp servers, and proxies. Additionally it has the ability to treat a list of mirrors as a single source and to automatically switch mirrors if there is a failure.


A library of handy utility functions

shared-mime-info shared MIME database and spec

This is the shared MIME-info database from the X Desktop Group. It is required by any program complying to the Shared MIME-Info Database spec, which is also included in this package. At this time at least ROX, GNOME, KDE and Xfce use this database.


user and group account administration library - utilities

The libuser library implements a standardized interface for manipulating and administering user and group accounts. The library uses pluggable back-ends to interface to its data sources. Sample applications modeled after those included with the shadow password suite are included: lchsh, lchfn, lid, lnewusers, lgroupadd, luseradd, lgroupdel, luserdel, lusermod, lgroupmod, lchage and lpasswd.


Advanced front-end for rpm

Yum (Yellow dog Updater, Modified) is an automatic updater and package installer/remover for rpm systems. It automatically computes dependencies and figures out what things should occur to install packages. It makes it easier to maintain groups of machines without having to manually update each one using rpm. Features include: * Multiple Repositories * Simple config file * Correct dependency calculation * Fast operation * rpm-consistent behavior * comps.xml group support, including multiple repository groups * Simple interface


change and administer password and group data

This package includes passwd, chsh, chfn, and many other programs to maintain password and group data. Shadow passwords are supported. See /usr/share/doc/passwd/README.Debian


System V Release 4.0 curses emulation library


Tools for the Network Security Services


GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities

The programs in this package are used to assemble, link and manipulate binary and object files. They may be used in conjunction with a compiler and various libraries to build programs.


Collection of simple PIN or passphrase entry dialogs which utilize the Assuan protocol


GNOME XML library

XML is a metalanguage to let you design your own markup language. A regular markup language defines a way to describe information in a certain class of documents (eg HTML). XML lets you define your own customized markup languages for many classes of document. It can do this because it's written in SGML, the international standard metalanguage for markup languages. This package provides a library providing an extensive API to handle such XML data files.


Support library for libgcrypt


GNU grep, egrep and fgrep

'grep' is a utility to search for text in files; it can be used from the command line or in scripts. Even if you don't want to use it, other packages on your system probably will. The GNU family of grep utilities may be the "fastest grep in the west". GNU grep is based on a fast lazy-state deterministic matcher (about twice as fast as stock Unix egrep) hybridized with a Boyer-Moore-Gosper search for a fixed string that eliminates impossible text from being considered by the full regexp matcher without necessarily having to look at every character. The result is typically many times faster than Unix grep or egrep. (Regular expressions containing backreferencing will run more slowly, however.)


Implementation of the Stringprep, Punycode and IDNA specifications


GNU stream editor for filtering/transforming text

sed reads the specified files or the standard input if no files are specified, makes editing changes according to a list of commands, and writes the results to the standard output.


GNU cpio -- a program to manage archives of files

GNU cpio is a tool for creating and extracting archives, or copying files from one place to another. It handles a number of cpio formats as well as reading and writing tar files.


/proc file system utilities

This package provides command line and full screen utilities for browsing procfs, a "pseudo" file system dynamically generated by the kernel to provide information about the status of entries in its process table (such as whether the process is running, stopped, or a "zombie"). It contains free, kill, pkill, pgrep, pmap, ps, pwdx, skill, slabtop, snice, sysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w, and watch.


XML parsing C library - example application

This package contains xmlwf, an example application of expat, the C library for parsing XML. The arguments to xmlwf are one or more files which are each to be checked for XML well-formedness.


p11-glue utilities

The p11-kit library provides a way to load and enumerate Public-Key Cryptography Standard #11 modules, along with a standard configuration setup for installing PKCS#11 modules so that they're discoverable. It also solves problems with coordinating the use of PKCS#11 by different components or libraries living in the same process. This package contains the p11-kit tool for listing PKCS#11 modules.


utility to set/show the host name or domain name

This package provides commands which can be used to display the system's DNS name, and to display or set its hostname or NIS domain name.


Network monitoring tools, including ping




tools for managing Linux kernel modules

This package contains a set of programs for loading, inserting, and removing kernel modules for Linux. It replaces module-init-tools.


Low-level tool for generating an initramfs image

Unlike existing initramfs's, this is an attempt at having as little as possible hard-coded into the initramfs as possible. The initramfs has (basically) one purpose in life -- getting the rootfs mounted so that we can transition to the real rootfs. This is all driven off of device availability. Therefore, instead of scripts hard-coded to do various things, we depend on udev to create device nodes for us and then when we have the rootfs's device node, we mount and carry on. Having the root on MD, LVM2, LUKS is supported as well as NFS, iSCSI, NBD and FCOE with dracut-network.


Library for password quality checking and generating random passwords


Fast LZ compression algorithm library - tool

LZ4 is a very fast lossless compression algorithm, providing compression speed at 400 MB/s per core, scalable with multi-cores CPU. It also features an extremely fast decoder, with speed in multiple GB/s per core, typically reaching RAM speed limits on multi-core systems. This package contains files that is tool using liblz4.


The p11-kit-trust package contains a system trust PKCS#11 module

which contains certificate anchors and black lists.


Utilities for monitoring your system and its processes


universal character encoding detector for Python2

Chardet takes a sequence of bytes in an unknown character encoding, and attempts to determine the encoding. Supported encodings: * ASCII, UTF-8, UTF-16 (2 variants), UTF-32 (4 variants) * Big5, GB2312, EUC-TW, HZ-GB-2312, ISO-2022-CN (Traditional and Simplified Chinese) * EUC-JP, SHIFT_JIS, ISO-2022-JP (Japanese) * EUC-KR, ISO-2022-KR (Korean) * KOI8-R, MacCyrillic, IBM855, IBM866, ISO-8859-5, windows-1251 (Cyrillic) * ISO-8859-2, windows-1250 (Hungarian) * ISO-8859-5, windows-1251 (Bulgarian) * windows-1252 (English) * ISO-8859-7, windows-1253 (Greek) * ISO-8859-8, windows-1255 (Visual and Logical Hebrew) * TIS-620 (Thai) This library is a port of the auto-detection code in Mozilla.


system and service manager

systemd is a system and service manager for Linux. It provides aggressive parallelization capabilities, uses socket and D-Bus activation for starting services, offers on-demand starting of daemons, keeps track of processes using Linux control groups, maintains mount and automount points and implements an elaborate transactional dependency-based service control logic. systemd is compatible with SysV and LSB init scripts and can work as a drop-in replacement for sysvinit. Installing the systemd package will not switch your init system unless you boot with init=/bin/systemd or install systemd-sysv in addition.


miscellaneous system utilities

This package contains a number of important utilities, most of which are oriented towards maintenance of your system. Some of the more important utilities included in this package allow you to view kernel messages, create new filesystems, view block device information, interface with real time clock, etc.


Library and command line tools for XZ and LZMA compressed files


Gdbm is a GNU database indexing library, including routines which

use extensible hashing. Gdbm works in a similar way to standard UNIX dbm routines. Gdbm is useful for developers who write C applications and need access to a simple and efficient database or who are building C applications which will use such a database. If you're a C developer and your programs need access to simple database routines, you should install gdbm. You'll also need to install gdbm-devel.


PCRE, Perl-compatible regular expression, library has its own

native API, but a set of wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX API are also supplied in the libpcreposix library. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. This package provides support for strings in 8-bit and UTF-8 encodings. Detailed change log is provided by pcre-doc package.


GLib bindings for D-Bus


Access control list utilities

This package contains the getfacl and setfacl utilities needed for manipulating access control lists.


A utility to show the full path of commands


Determines file type using "magic" numbers

File tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. There are three sets of tests, performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic number tests, and language tests. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed.


Secure Sockets Layer toolkit - cryptographic utility

This package is part of the OpenSSL project's implementation of the SSL and TLS cryptographic protocols for secure communication over the Internet. It contains the general-purpose command line binary /usr/bin/openssl, useful for cryptographic operations such as: * creating RSA, DH, and DSA key parameters; * creating X.509 certificates, CSRs, and CRLs; * calculating message digests; * encrypting and decrypting with ciphers; * testing SSL/TLS clients and servers; * handling S/MIME signed or encrypted mail.


NET-3 networking toolkit

This package includes the important tools for controlling the network subsystem of the Linux kernel. This includes arp, ifconfig, netstat, rarp, nameif and route. Additionally, this package contains utilities relating to particular network hardware types (plipconfig, slattach, mii-tool) and advanced aspects of IP configuration (iptunnel, ipmaddr). In the upstream package 'hostname' and friends are included. Those are not installed by this package, since there is a special "hostname*.deb".


utilities that use the proc file system

This package contains miscellaneous utilities that use the proc FS: - fuser: identifies processes that are using files or sockets. - killall: kills processes by name (e.g. "killall -HUP named"). - peekfd: shows the data traveling over a file descriptor. - pstree: shows currently running processes as a tree. - prtstat: print the contents of /proc/<pid>/stat


SELinux policy compiler

Security-enhanced Linux is a patch of the Linux® kernel and a number of utilities with enhanced security functionality designed to add mandatory access controls to Linux. The Security-enhanced Linux kernel contains new architectural components originally developed to improve the security of the Flask operating system. These architectural components provide general support for the enforcement of many kinds of mandatory access control policies, including those based on the concepts of Type Enforcement®, Role-based Access Control, and Multi-level Security. This package contains checkpolicy, the SELinux policy compiler. Only required for building policies. It uses libsepol to generate the binary policy. checkpolicy uses the static libsepol since it deals with low level details of the policy that have not been encapsulated/abstracted by a proper shared library interface.


pager program similar to more

This package provides "less", a file pager (that is, a memory-efficient utility for displaying text one screenful at a time). Less has many more features than the basic pager "more". As part of the GNU project, it is widely regarded as the standard pager on UNIX-derived systems. Also provided are "lessecho", a simple utility for ensuring arguments with spaces are correctly quoted; "lesskey", a tool for modifying the standard (vi-like) keybindings; and "lesspipe", a filter for specific types of input, such as .doc or .txt.gz files.


GNU troff text-formatting system

This package contains optional components of the GNU troff text-formatting system. The core package, groff-base, contains the traditional tools like troff, nroff, tbl, eqn, and pic. This package contains additional devices and drivers for output to DVI, HTML (when recommended packages are installed - see below), PDF, HP LaserJet printers, and Canon CAPSL LBP-4 and LBP-8 printers. The X75, X75-12, X100, and X100-12 devices, which allow groff output to be conveniently viewed on an X display using the standard X11 fonts, are now included here. They were previously in a separate package, groff-x11. Besides these, the groff package contains man pages describing the language and its macro sets, info documentation, and a number of supplementary programs: - gxditview, which is used to display the output of the X* devices, and can also be used to view PostScript output from groff; - grn, a preprocessor for pictures in the 'gremlin' format; - tfmtodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tdvi'; - hpftodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tlj4'; - afmtodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tps'; - refer, which preprocesses bibliographic references for use with groff; - indxbib, which creates inverted indices for bibliographic databases used by 'refer'; - lkbib and lookbib, which search bibliographic databases; - addftinfo, which adds metric information to troff font files for use with groff; - pfbtops, which translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII for use with groff; - mmroff, a simple groff preprocessor which expands references in mm; - pic2graph, which converts PIC diagrams into cropped image files; - eqn2graph, which converts EQN equations into cropped image files; - pdfmom, which runs 'groff -mom' to produce PDFs. All the standard macro packages are supported. Some facilities only work if certain recommended packages are installed: - ghostscript, netpbm, psutils: required for HTML output; - imagemagick: required for the pic2graph and eqn2graph programs; - libpaper1: paper size detection in dvi, lbp, lj4, and ps devices (falls back to a4 if not installed); - perl: required for PDF output and for the chem preprocessor.


high-quality block-sorting file compressor - utilities

bzip2 is a freely available, patent free, high-quality data compressor. It typically compresses files to within 10% to 15% of the best available techniques, whilst being around twice as fast at compression and six times faster at decompression. bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. The archive file format of bzip2 (.bz2) is incompatible with that of its predecessor, bzip (.bz).


POSIX-compliant shell

The Debian Almquist Shell (dash) is a POSIX-compliant shell derived from ash. Since it executes scripts faster than bash, and has fewer library dependencies (making it more robust against software or hardware failures), it is used as the default system shell on Debian systems.


(version 4) databases


Utilities based around the yum package manager

Yum-utils is a collection of utilities and examples for the yum package manager. It includes utilities by different authors that make yum easier and more powerful to use. The commands provided are: * repo-graph: output a full package dependency graph in dot format * repo-rss: generate an RSS feed from one or more yum repositories * repoclosure: display a list of unresolved dependencies for a yum repository * repodiff: list differences between two or more yum repositories * repomanage: list the newest or oldest packages in a yum repository * repoquery: query information from yum repositories * reposync: synchronize yum repositories to a local directory * repotrack: track a package and its dependencies and download them * yum-builddep: install missing dependencies for building an RPM package * yum-complete-transaction: attempt to complete failed or aborted yum transactions * yum-config-manager: manage yum configuration options and yum repositories * yum-groups-manager: create and edit group metadata for a yum repository * yumdb: query and alter the yum database * yumdownloader: download RPM packages from yum repositories On Debian and derived systems, this package can be useful for installing and managing chroots or lxc containers of yum-based distributions. The utilities for querying and managing yum repositories may also be useful for maintaining repositories of RPM packages on a Debian host.